In the 1960’s, the use of main frame computers became widespread in many  companies.  To access vast amounts of stored information, these companies  started to use computer programs like COBOL and FORTRAN.  Data accessibility and  data sharing soon became an important feature because of the large amount of  information required by different departments within certain companies.  With  this system, each application owns its own data files.  The problems thus  associated with this type of file processing  was uncontrolled redundancy,  inconsistent data, inflexibility, poor enforcement of standards, and low  programmer maintenance. In 1964, MIS (Management Information Systems) was introduced.  This would  prove to be very influential towards future designs of computer systems and the  methods they will use in manipulating data. In 1966, Philip Kotler had the first description of how managers could  benefit from the powerful capabilities of the electronic computer as a management tool. In 1969, Berson developed a marketing information system for marketing  research.  In 1970,  the Montgomery urban model was developed stressing the  quantitative aspect of management by highlighting a data bank, a model bank, and  a measurement statistics bank.  All of these factors will be influential on  future models of storing data in a pool. According to Martine, in 1981, a database is a shared collection of  interrelated data designed to meet the needs of multiple types of end users.   The data is stored in one location so that they are independent of the programs  that use them, keeping in mind data integrity with respect to the approaches to  adding new data, modifying data, and retrieving existing data.  A database is  shared and perceived differently by multiple users.  This leads to the arrival  of Database Management Systems.